Jul 23, 2019
Tree nuts are filled with high-quality nutrients, such as vitamin E, fiber, and phytochemicals. Dr. Patrick Bering discusses how tree nuts can decrease heart disease risk, particularly in people who have diabetes.
Intro: MedStar Washington Hospital Center presents Medical Intel where our healthcare team shares health and wellness insights and gives you the inside story on advances in medicine.
Host: We’re speaking with Dr. Patrick Bering, a cardiologist at MedStar Washington Hospital Center. Thank you for joining us, Dr. Bering.
Dr. Bering: Thank you for having me. It’s a pleasure.
Host: Today we’re discussing how eating nuts may lead to lower heart disease risk for people with diabetes. According to one study, people with diabetes who ate at least five small servings of nuts a week were 17% less likely to develop heart disease. Dr. Bering, what do you make of these results?
Dr. Bering: These results are very interesting, and they seem to add to our understanding of how diet plays a key role in our risk or avoidance of cardiovascular disease. These studies were observational in nature, meaning that they relied on self-reporting from a group of patients, but they were perspective, enrolling patients at a younger stage in their life and then, following up along with them over time to see whether or not they developed any heart disease. I think that they’re very exciting and add to our understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet, especially for our patients who have already developed diabetes.
Host: Why do you think these expanded on our understanding of what we already know?
Dr. Bering: Nuts are an interesting topic. There’ve been some health conditions where nuts were thought to be a food to avoid and that’s been debunked with time. That includes things like diverticulosis, which is a condition of your large intestine. One of the cornerstones of a very popular diet that is practiced by people in the Mediterranean region is the Mediterranean Diet. From our observations, populations who eat a Mediterranean diet have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. One of the key constituents of the Mediterranean Diet is actually the inclusion of nuts for regular consumption as part of their usual diet.
Host: Why are nuts so beneficial to our health?
Dr. Bering: Nuts are jam packed with lots of quality nutrients. They have unsaturated fatty acids. They have plant chemicals that are called phytochemicals. They have fiber. Certain vitamins including vitamin E and folic acid. They also have important minerals for our body like calcium, potassium and magnesium. They are really jam packed with all these great nutrients, great nutritional benefit. And, because of that, we get a lot of bang for our buck, so to speak, when we consume nuts.
Host: The study’s authors mentioned that tree nuts were especially associated with lower heart disease risks. What do you think makes tree nuts particularly beneficial for people with diabetes who want to lower their heart disease risk?
Dr. Bering: It’s interesting that this was seen more with tree nuts than other kinds of nuts. It’s important to note that probably one of the most popular nuts, so to speak, is the peanut, which is not a true nut, it’s a legume and it grows underground. Tree nuts grow above ground and they seem to have more of these high-quality nutrients that are beneficial to our health, especially for patients with diabetes. Certain of these minerals, fibers and chemicals are more likely to provide anti-inflammatory effects, and inflammation and diabetes is one of the key driving forces of a lot of the complications in the eye and the kidneys and the vasculature.
Host: For people with diabetes who want to lower their heart disease risk, what kind of nuts do you recommend?
Dr. Bering: That’s a great question. There are so many good ones out there. I think almonds are a great one, cashews, pistachios, walnuts, pine nuts or hazelnuts. And, you can get very creative in the ways that you incorporate these into your diet. My wife, who is a dietician and provides my expert advice at home, will often incorporate nuts either into our breakfast with some yogurt or will add it to a salad as a way to provide some extra texture, crunch and flavor to something that we’re eating. I think there are many great examples of recipes out there, especially with the internet, where you can see how incorporating these into your diet can be helpful. Another thing is that they’re also easy to transport and so they’re a good snack on the go if you’re a little bit hungry and a much healthier option than more food of convenience or junk food.
Host: Are there any potential downsides for people with diabetes when they start incorporating nuts into their diets?
Dr. Bering: It is important to recognize things like portion of nuts is, as well as what salt content they may have. For example, a usual guideline is that one serving of nuts is about a third of a cup. And, if you eat much more than that, you can actually be eating too many nuts. So, you want to make sure that portion control is an important part of your diet. Secondly, some nuts come pre-salted or pre-flavored and many of these flavorings contain salt in them. For patients with diabetes who may have other problems with their kidneys or their heart disease, it’s important to note the salt content and to prefer buying nuts that are unsalted. If you want to add additional flavor to your nuts down the line, you can often use a unsalted preparation in order to give them extra flavor.
Host: Nuts have been shown to lower high blood pressure. What is it about nuts that lowers high blood pressure?
Dr. Bering: That’s still something that’s under a little bit of some investigation, but it seems to be partly the anti-inflammatory effects, there inclusion of unsaturated fatty acids and, most importantly, probably the potassium content. A diet that’s rich in potassium is often one that is very useful at controlling high blood pressure. Potassium is a key component in our diet at making sure that we control blood pressure.
Host: What other diet tips should people with diabetes follow to prevent heart disease?
Dr. Bering: As we talked about before, I think portion control is a very big issue. Many of our portions that we receive outside the home or that we see in advertisements are much too large for what we should actually be consuming. And so, following recommendations, either on the American Heart Association website or the CDC, as far as what a certain portion of different nutrients is, can be very important. As I said before, an optimal portion of nuts when consumed a few days a week or, in this study, up to five days a week, is about a third of a cup. Additionally, a great thing to keep in mind and very simple is that ultra-processed foods - and, what I mean by that is foods that don’t look like anything that occurs in nature - those are foods that often have the worst health effects. Those are foods that have a lot of sugar-enriched sweetening or artificial sweeteners and colors and those are often the foods that lead to adverse cardiovascular health or obesity-related illnesses, such as diabetes or high cholesterol.
Host: Why is MedStar Washington Hospital Center the best place to seek care for heart disease?
Dr. Bering: We have a very comprehensive and passionate team that loves to serve their community here in the DMV. We have experts in every level of care, from primary care to preventative care as well as to emergency care, if you happen to have the misfortune of suffering from cardiovascular disease. I’m very honored to work with my colleagues, who inspire me every day. But, most inspiring to all of us is our interactions with the patients whom we serve.
Host: Could you share a story where a patient with diabetes started following a healthier diet and experienced a decrease in their heart disease risk factors?
Dr. Bering: Yes. Interestingly, I recently had the pleasure of taking care of a young man who was obese and had high blood pressure and diabetes, both of which were more recently diagnosed. He unfortunately came to the hospital with a small heart attack. But, after treating the heart attack, he made really positive health changes in his life. He started doing a cardiac rehab program, exercising on a regular basis, and made positive dietary changes, cutting out a lot of the food of convenience - things like fast foods or snacks that are not natural and are these ultra-processed foods. Since then, he’s lost a good deal of weight, says that he’s much happier and has improved energy and overall quality of life. He’s made great progress and it’s a nice journey to go on with him together, to help support him and his improved cardiovascular health.
Host: Thanks for joining us today, Dr. Bering.
Dr. Bering: Thank you. I appreciate it.
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